Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is a widely used method for examining the properties of different biological structures, whether single cells, tissues or whole organ systems. All biological cells have electrical properties that enable to use impedance for describing changes in their composition and functioning.
Bioelectrical impedance is a standard technology used in different medical devices such as hemodynamic monitors and respiratory function analysers. Bioimpedance is increasingly used for characterizing tissues, both in vitro and in vivo, or counting cells, e.g. in haematology analysers or microfluidics.